Signs predicting early growth of intracerebral haemorrhage in computer tomography without enhancement and mortality
Introduction. Intracerebral haemorrhage is associated with high morbidity and mortality, and an increase in its volume in the early phases entails a poorer prognosis. The blend sign, the heterogeneous density, the irregular morphology and a fluid level in the haematoma are related to an early growth of the haematoma.
Aim. To determine whether these four characteristics are associated with greater mortality at 7, 30 and 90 days of the occurrence of the intracerebral haemorrhage.
Patients and methods. A retrospective cohort study that included all the patients attended in our hospital between 2010 and 2015 for spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage with a computed tomography brain scan performed in the first six hours following the onset of symptoms.
Results. Of the 158 patients included in the sample, 23 (14.6%) presented blend sign; 39 (24.7%), heterogeneity; 53 (33.5%), irregularity; and 33 (20.9%), fluid level. In the bivariate analysis, only heterogeneity and irregularity were associated with increased mortality at 7, 30 and 90 days. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, previous treatment with an antiplatelet drug, a score on the Glasgow Coma Scale below 13 and irregularity were associated with higher mortality in the first seven days.
Conclusion. The study shows an association between irregularity of the haematoma and mortality in the first seven days. Irregularity would allow identification of patients with a more unfavourable prognosis; in these cases, strict surveillance, especially of factors related to the growth of the haematoma, could improve their prognosis.
Key words. Brain haematoma. Heterogeneity. Intracerebral haemorrhage. Irregularity. Mortality. Neuroimaging.