Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Gross Motor Function Measure to the Spanish population of children with cerebral palsy
Introduction. The Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) is a measure designed to assess changes in gross motor function over time in children with cerebral palsy. It is an observation instrument, valid, reliable and responsive, widely used both in research and in clinical practice.
Aim. To perform the translation and cross-cultural adaptation to the Spanish population of the GMFM.
Subjects and methods. The forward-backward translation methodology was used, subjecting the resulting versions to a qualitative analysis of equivalence. Both the score sheet and the instructions were translated through strategies of omission, incorporation, substitution of words or contribution of examples. In addition, understandability, applicability and feasibility were assessed through a pilot study in which assessors and subjects with a heterogeneous profile participated.
Results. The items that generated the most difficulty were those that included clinical terms or expressions whose use is not considered natural or equivalent in the Spanish language. Although 57% and 58% of the items of forward and backward translation, respectively, were classified as ‘partially equivalent’, no correction was necessary since the modifications made came from the cultural and linguistic adaptation of the items to the Spanish population.
Conclusions. The Spanish version maintains the highest degree of equivalence concerning the original English version and is understandable by all professionals regardless of their professional experience or geographic origin.
Key words. Cerebral palsy. Cross-cultural adaptation. GMFM. Gross motor function. Gross Motor Function Measure. Outcome measure. Pediatric physical therapy.